Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD is considered as a coenzyme and present in all living cells as a NAD coenzyme of vitamin B-3 niacin. NAD is a term used for a chemical molecule that functions to produce the cellular energy inside the mitochondria that is also known as the powerhouse of the cell. It also serves various metabolic processes as a reducing agent.
It is made up of two nucleotides joined together from their phosphate groups. One nucleotide consists of an adenine base other nicotinamide, which performs functions like repairing and remodeling of cells.
NAD+ and NADH
What is NAD+?
NAD is important for the functioning of mitochondria and acts as an energy source for the hundreds of metabolic processes. The plus (+) sign represents the formal charge.
Levels of NAD+ keeps changing during the whole aging process:
What is NADH?
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) molecule carrying Hydrogen referred as NADH. The H in the NADH indicates the Hydrogen with high-energy. It is the highest ranked coenzyme in the body.
How does NAD turn to NADH?
NAD+ basically undergoes redox(oxidation-reduction) reaction and exerts a positive charge, it has the quality to oxidize biologically and the reduced form of NAD+ is termed as NADH.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Sources:
NAD is an important key element of life processes and perfect functioning of the body. It is easily available in food products and can be easily consumed by the body.
Food sources rich in vitamin B3 contains the maximum amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Some of the natural sources of NAD are:
NAD Animal Sources:
NAD Plant Sources:
• Peanuts and
There is also Artificial Sources like Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) Supplements and medicinal items available in Healthcare and fitness Stores.
NAD in Human Body:
- NAD is believed to be a metabolic regulator inside our body and present in a sufficient amount to continue the processes for a specific time.
- It is found in various internal parts of the body such as biofluid locations like blood and cellular cytoplasm.
At several tissue locations like:
• Adrenal Gland
• Brain, Liver
• Skeletal muscle
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Functions:
NAD is useful for various life processes which are responsible for the proper maintenance and functioning of the body. Basically, it is used to generate energy in the body and to guard against many diseases. Some of the uses of NAD are:
- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) for Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease: Patients suffering from diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson’s disease treated with Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD). It works efficiently for the improvement of patient’s health.
- Improves the mental state of mind: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) helps in improving concentration, memory, alertness and mental clarity.
- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH): It works as an immunity-boosting agent and provides energy for the various process in the body and increases efficiency and growth of the male reproductive and growth hormone i.e. Testosterone.
- Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) for Skincare: Being the highest coenzyme in metabolic process and the ability to repair damaged cells make NAD the most potent antioxidant. It helps in reducing the signs of aging and works as an essential element in skin care and provides energy to the aged and dead cells. NAD bears top position in the category of anti-aging elements. It repairs the damaged cells and increases their lifespan.
- NAD in Cellular Respiration: NAD is an important enzyme in generating (Adenosine triphosphate) ATP which is the most important part of cellular respiration. Every cell in the body needs thousands of units of ATP and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) helps in attaining this resource for the cells.
- NADH in Supplements: There are many supplements available in the market containing NADH because it helps in repairing of damaged DNA and cells by promoting the growth of hormones and other useful elements in process of growth.
- NADH for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome(CFS): Chronic fatigue syndrome is a kind of mental state with extreme fatigue and NAD helps in releasing stress and pressure from the patients suffering from CFS.
- Endurance: Athletes take Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) as an endurance-boosting agent for their various athletic tasks. It multiplies the cell generation process and provides instant energy for the physical workout.
Precautions, Warnings and Side effects of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD):
Before using any kind of medicinal products containing NAD you should consider these precautions to prevent side-effects.
Recommended for Short-term usage: NAD should be used for short period of time for about 1-2 months daily in the morning with water.
During Pregnancy: to stay on the safer side avoid using NAD during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding period without any consultation.
Mood swings: It is advised NAD should not be used for long-term because it may lead to problems like anxiety, insomnia, overstimulation and fatigue.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Dosage:
Consult your doctor before taking any dose of NAD and try to rely on the certified prescription.
• 5-10mg of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is considered adequate for daily intake.
• However, there is no scientific proof for determining the dosage of NAD but the intake of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide sometimes depends on factors like age, past health issues or allergic to any drug.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Deficiency:
Deficiency of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is termed as NAD energy deficiency (NED). It is the situation of unavailability of sufficient amount of NAD inside the body.
Factors responsible for the changing levels of NAD in the body:
•Diet deficiency in Vitamin B3 can lead to the deficiency of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in the body.
•Long-term alcoholics might suffer from the deficiency of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
•Age must be a factor in the deficiency of NAD.
Deficiency related risks:
• Low NAD increases the chances of skin burns and skin cancer.
• Insufficient amount of NAD may worsen cardiovascular diseases.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Products:
Products containing NAD are easily available in the market. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is one of the most sold products containing NAD.
Some of the brands that make NAD supplements are:
• Jarrow Formulas
FAQ: What people normally want to know about Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide?
1. I am using NAD for a month but it is not helping me in concentration?
Consult your doctor for better results or increase the intake of NAD in your daily schedule.
2. Are there any better antioxidants rather than Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide?
The answer is no, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) tops the category of antioxidants due to its high efficiency.
3. I’m having high blood pressure and high cholesterol problem, so can I take NAD products without any prescription?
No, first consult your doctor or it may cause problems like anxiety and fatigue.
4. I am a long-term alcoholic so what measures I should keep in my mind for the regular production of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in my body?
Dietary supplements is an option and foods products rich in vitamins will help you in the sufficient production of NADH and it will minimise the chances of deficiency of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in your body.